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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 89-93

Molecular mechanisms involved in making periodontitis – A painless disease entity

Department of Periodontics, SGT Dental College, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Shruti Maroo Rathi
Flat 9A, Tower L, Central Park 2, Sector 48, Gurgaon, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jorr.jorr_6_19

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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in the tissues surrounding the tooth. It is due to the secretion of various inflammatory mediators from host as well as bacteria in response to microbial attack. Unlike any other inflammatory condition, even periodontitis is characterized by production of several inflammatory mediators such as leukotriene, cytokines, and arachidonic acid metabolites that are pro-algesic in nature, but still, patients with periodontitis do not present with “pain” as chief complaint nor do they self-medicate. Searches were carried out in the “Cochrane Library,” “MEDLINE,” “Web of Science,” “Scopus,” and “Google Scholar” databases, using the terms: “painless” and “periodontitis.” In this review, we discuss the role of various factors such as painless gene, calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptors, endogenous opioids, butyric acid and CXC chemokine receptor 4 signaling by Porphyromonas gingivalis on hypoalgesia in periodontal disease. A detailed understanding of these mechanisms that are involved in making periodontitis, a unique painless inflammatory condition, is required as it can be used to develop new diagnostics and therapeutic modalities to treat severe chronic pain in other conditions.

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