|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 121-124
Solitary median maxillary central incisor: Gateway to diagnosis of systemic diseases
Brijinder Singh Talwar1, MM Dempsy Chengappa2, Atul Bali3, Rahul Kaul4
1 Department of Prosthodontics, 3 Corps Dental Unit, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Peadodontics, INHS Sanjivani, Kochi, Kerala, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, Army Dental Centre (Research & Referral), New Delhi, India
4 Dental Officer (Pedodontics), Fd Hosp, Manipur, India, India
|Date of Submission||08-Oct-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Feb-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||22-Jun-2021|
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
A Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly that may occur alone or be associated with other systemic conditions. Most common association is with holoprosencephaly. It can easily be misdiagnosed as a simple case of hypodontia due to either traumatic dental injury or fusion of two central incisors or a mesiodens developing to the one side of midline or any other condition that may lead to growth termination of central incisor at the cellular level. Every dentist needs to be aware of oral manifestations of this anomaly, thereby facilitating an early diagnosis of SMMCI, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental anomalies. Proper follow-up and close monitoring of the growth and development of SMMCI patients are of critical importance. The aim of this paper was to report a case of a 12-year-old female child with an SMMCI and describe important symptoms of this syndrome.
Keywords: Congenital, incisor, single, solitary, systemic diseases
|How to cite this article:|
Talwar BS, Dempsy Chengappa M M, Bali A, Kaul R. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: Gateway to diagnosis of systemic diseases. J Oral Res Rev 2021;13:121-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Talwar BS, Dempsy Chengappa M M, Bali A, Kaul R. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: Gateway to diagnosis of systemic diseases. J Oral Res Rev [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 5];13:121-4. Available from: https://www.jorr.org/text.asp?2021/13/2/121/319025
| Introduction|| |
Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is a rare dental anomaly (OMIM 147250) that mainly presents as an esthetic concern to a dentist. SMMCIS was initially described by Hall et al. in 1997. As per literature, the estimated incidence of SMMCIS is reported to be 1 in 50,000 live births. Higher incidence is reported in aborted fetuses and still births. Solitary median maxillary central incisor can either be an isolated dental finding or as a part of SMMCIS; a complex neurodevelopmental disorder affecting midline structures of the head occurring as a result of unknown events occurring between 35th and 38th days of intrauterine life. SMMCIS is known to involve cranial bones, especially maxilla and its dentition, nasal airways, and brain along with other midline structures of the body.
The most noteworthy feature of SMMCIS is the presence of a single maxillary central incisor in both primary and permanent dentitions located exactly in the midline region. Timely detection and diagnosis of this syndrome are important because it may lead to diagnosis of more severe congenital malformations. Treatment approach is always multidisciplinary.
| Case Report|| |
A 12-year-old female child reported to our department of dentistry with chief complaint of single large upper front tooth that led to low self-esteem and communion among her peers. The child's parents had a consanguineous marriage. Neither her parents nor any of her siblings were affected by SMMCIS. Medical history revealed that the child was born through a cesarean section as a full-term baby and had normal birth weight. Dental history revealed that she had only one deciduous maxillary central incisor. No other relevant medical history was observed.
On clinical examination, the child had a mesoprosopic facial form. On extraoral examination, no facial asymmetry was observed [Figure 1]. She had a complete set of permanent dentition erupted excluding all four third molars. Maxillary and mandibular arches were found to be symmetrical to each other. Angles' Class 1 molar relationship with mild crowding in both maxillary and mandibular dentition was observed. Only one maxillary central incisor was present that too in the midline. Philtrum of the upper lip could not be appreciated, and incisive papilla was missing as well. In addition to this, both maxillary and mandibular labial frena were absent [Figure 2]. A good oral hygiene was maintained by the child. Radiographic examination ruled out the presence of any mesiodens, unerupted tooth, or impacted tooth [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. There was no history of dental trauma to primary as well as permanent dentition. Treatment plan was explained to the child's parents. The child was referred to a pediatrician to rule out possibility of any systemic disease and obtain consent to carry out dental treatment. No systemic finding was observed by pediatrician. The child was then referred to the department of orthodontics to reposition the tooth to a desired position and create space for implant or fixed dental prosthesis in the future.
| Discussion|| |
Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare developmental anomaly that may occur sometimes as an isolated dental finding. Presence of SMMCI can lead to the diagnosis of various associated anomalies such as holoprosencephaly (HPE), choanal atresia, nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, and greater risk of pituitary malformation.
Although the etiology is largely unknown, it has been hypothesized that missense mutation in Sonic Hedgehog gene at 7q36.1 may be lead to the formation of SMMCI., Hall et al. proposed that a critical absence of or reduction in the lateral growth from the midline, on or around 35th or 38th day of gestation, leads to premature fusion of the epithelial dental lamina, thereby preventing the formation of two complete central incisors, hence leading to the formation of SMMCI. Uniqueness of single central incisor is attributed to its morphology with identical right and left surfaces, unlike a normal central incisor. Maxillary and mandibular buccal frena are missing in these cases. The present case displayed all these features.
Early diagnosis of cases of SMMCI is important as it could be a manifestation of other more severe developmental and congenital anomalies. This can be done prenatally with ultrasound or genetic testing. Diagnosis can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks by ultrasound or genetic testing. Evaluation of dental alveoli and germinal teeth by prenatal ultrasound in fetuses with midline pathology facilitates diagnosis of SMMCI and associated anomalies.
Various other congenital anomalies frequently found in association with SMMCI are severe-to-mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, hypotelorism, hypothyroidism, hypopituitarism, microcephaly, absent kidney, convergent strabismus, esophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, scoliosis, micropenis, and ambiguous genitalia.,
SMMCIS requires comprehensive treatment by a team comprised pediatric neonatologist, obstetrician, pediatric otolaryngologist, geneticist, pediatric neurologist, pediatric endocrinologist, pediatric dentist, orthodontist, and prosthodontist.
Pediatric neonatologist and obstetrician play a role in diagnosis of respiratory distress due to congenital nasal obstruction if present at birth and refer the child immediately to an otolaryngologist. Geneticist will be helpful in the detection of this syndrome by the assessment of family pedigree and genetic analysis. Early referral to the pediatric dentist proves helpful in monitoring growth of the child. Patients' facial growth pattern in both transverse and sagittal directions should be analyzed right from primary dentition stage. Treatment is not done at the primary dentition stage. Pediatric neurologist should be consulted in case of HPE. Growth abnormalities such as deficiency of growth hormone that leads to short stature are taken care by the pediatric endocrinologist. In the permanent dentition, treatment regimen includes orthodontic intervention in the form of either palatal expansion, distalization of the first permanent molars, or otherwise, extraction of premolars to create space for replacement of the contralateral missing central incisor. After creating space for contralateral artificial central incisor, the prosthodontist places a single tooth implant or fixed partial denture at appropriate age.
Solitary median maxillary central incisor easily misses diagnosis. Cases in primary dentition have been reported.,,, Differential diganosis includes hypodontia due to either traumatic dental injury or fusion of two central incisors or a mesiodens developing to the one side of midline or any other condition that may have led to growth termination of central incisor at the cellular level. Every dentist needs to be aware of oral manifestations of this anomaly, thereby facilitating an early diagnosis of SMMCI, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental anomalies. Proper follow-up and close monitoring of the growth and development of SMMCI patients is of critical importance.
| Conclusion|| |
SMMCI is a rare condition which may point toward other severe congenital and developmental anomalies. A multidisciplinary approach is key to successful early diagnosis and management of this condition. A suitable treatment plan tailor made based on the various associated anomalies over different phases of the life of the patient would be critical in successful long-term care.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
DS3/2020/03 dt 07 Aug 2020.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]